How To Read a Dog’s Body Language To Improve Learning

Do you have a dog who doesn’t seem to be learning how to behave as quickly as you'd like, and you’re concerned that if you don’t figure out how get through to him his behavior is going to keep getting worse?

If so, don’t feel bad! Getting stubborn dogs to learn how to be calm, obedient, relaxed dogs is really hard to do if you don’t understand how to read dog body language.

Not learning how to read dog body language is like trying to communicate with someone who ignores things like your facial expressions, eye rolling, or arm crossing when you don’t want to talk. Ignoring the subtle, nonverbal parts of communication can make situations awkward quickly.

Or worse... dangerous!   Because, of course, a dog’s mouth is a very dangerous weapon when these boundaries get pushed too far.

That's why it's important to learn to your dog's ENTIRE body language...

Knowing that This Secret Dog Body Language Exists, What Should You do About It?

Well… have you ever been in a situation where you had to try and communicate with someone who didn’t speak the same language as you?

Like maybe you tried to learn where the bathroom was in a foreign country and the person you asked didn’t speak English?

What did you end up doing to try to communicate?

Maybe you did some pointing? Maybe you crossed your legs to act out that you ‘had to go’ to get the point across?

In most cases, whenever we humans know we’re not being understood, we try to find some sort of a common language. We know there’s a language barrier, so we turn to other types of communication.

So this begs the question…

What “Language” do Canines Understand?

While it is true that dogs can learn to understand verbal cues and vocalizations…

(because after all they need to know that growling from another pack member means, ‘back the ‘F’ off')

… vocalizations are NOT the primary way dogs communicate and learn from each other.

The primary way that dogs communicate with each other is actually more through NON-verbal communication.

What we tell our clients here at is that if you have a dog who is ignoring you, it's usually because dogs don’t listen with their ears very well… they actually “listen” more with their eyes. Now don’t get me wrong, I’m not saying that dogs can’t learn to listen (I’ll actually show you how to get them to listen later on)… I’m just saying that it’s not the DEFAULT way dogs communicate.

To show you what I mean here’s a simple ‘Turning Head’ test you can perform on your dog to see if your dog has this same type of listening problem. By turning your head away from your dog so he can’t see your mouth or your facial expressions, you can find out if your dog was actually listening to the words you were saying, or just reading facial expressions.

Try This Quick 'Dog Listening Test'

Pretty crazy huh? My dog wasn't listening at all! He was reading my facial cues! So the second I hid them from him, he was essentially DEAF to my commands. And many, many dogs are like this.

This happens because dogs are experts at nonverbal communication. They are constantly using their eyes, mouth, tails and body posture to try to tell us how they’re feeling. If we want our dogs to learn behaviors as quickly as possible, we first need to get better at understanding the nonverbal communication signals they’re sending us ALL day long.

So let’s first start with…

How to Read Your Canine’s Mind Through Their Eyes

When learning to read your dog’s eyes, you need to be able to identify the three different types of eye cues dogs give you, which are Neutral, Aroused/Anxious, or “Whale Eyes”. Here's a great video on reading dog eye cues. See if you can look at the image below and match the pictures of dog eyes to the appropriate eye cue type.

Step #1: Match the Dog Eye Images to the Three Types of Dog Eye Cues

Also… watch for dogs who look at you from the corner of their eyes, or avert eye contact. This is a common look for dogs who are feeling fearful. It’s also common for these types of dogs to keep their mouths closed tightly, and hold their breath. If you see a dog doing these things, he’s telling you he’s scared!

Watch For 'Averting' Eye-Contact

Remember, if you see a dog exhibiting signs of fear or stress, they will typically respond in one of three ways: fight, flee, or cower.

Humans are pretty bad at actually noticing these signs in dogs. So bad, in fact, that a recent study of dog experts who analyzed dog body language signs in social media pictures where dog owners were hugging their dogs, noted that 80+ percent of dogs were showing signs of stress while being hugged. And the owners had no idea! Learning how to spot these signs is going to make your pooch’s life so much less stressful!

Step #2: Learn How to Read a Dog’s Mind Through Their Tail

The way your dog wags his tail is a fascinating study.

Tail wagging to a dog is like facial expressions to us humans. So just like how we know a smiling person is approachable, and an angry person should be avoided… dogs get that same information from a tail wag.

Here’s a few tips on how to read this nonverbal communication:

Reading Tail Height

How high a dog’s tail is can be a pretty good way to gauge the intensity of your dog’s emotions.

If your dog’s tail is middle height he’s in a pretty relaxed state. If the tail goes straight up, the dog is getting too excited or upset; and the lower it gets the dog is getting more upset or anxious.

But height isn’t the only thing to pay attention to.

The direction your dog’s tail wags, and the speed at which he wags his tail mean different things too.

For example. a tail wagging to the left, like in the images below, is a negative tail wag. A dog wagging his tail in this way is in a negative state of mind. A tail wagging to the right says the dog is in a positive state of mind, and a tail tucked between his legs means he’s feeling submissive.

I recommend taking this chart and starting to pay attention to other dogs while out on walks. See if you can gain some more insights into their emotions. The first time I did this, it was like those videos of people who have their ears cured and hear for the first time; because you realize there is this whole level of communication that your dog has been trying to tell you that you never new about. It’s really pretty cool.

Step #3: Reading Your Dog’s Posture

There are a few reasons you want to make sure you learn how to interpret a dog’s posture.

The first is if you are interested in socializing your dog to other dogs. Socialization is a two-way street with dogs. You need to be able to look at your own dog and read his comfort level around other dogs so you don’t push him too fast and CREATE an anxiety issue. But, even more important, you need to be able to read BAD dog behavior from afar, so you can avoid them.

You don’t want to blindly let your dog walk up to a dominant dog only to end up having to break up a dog fight.

The Pass/No Pass Philosophy

Here at we teach a pass/no-pass philosophy to people who are training their dogs how to properly interact with others out in the world. What pass/no-pass means is that we want to stay VERY far away from dogs with certain types of posture, as we can tell that they are likely to lunge, bark or attack our dog if we get too close. When people make this mistake and allow their dog to have run-ins with dogs like these, it builds their dog’s anxiety “Head Trash” when they see other dogs (this is especially important when working with a new puppy). So, instead of praying that a dog-to-dog interaction will go well, just walk far around these types of dogs, or step off the side of the path and stay far enough away to prevent an accident.

Here’s an example of dogs you should steer clear of and ones that are ok to walk by:

Also… if you notice YOUR dog doing any of the behaviors in the RED zone on the above graphic, please do other dog owners a favor and steer clear of other dogs, as your dog is not yet ready to interact appropriately. You won’t be doing either dog a favor if you try to approach a submissive dog who’s hiding behind his owners legs, or who seems overly excited to play.

Usually, if you follow those large posture cues you’ll be doing pretty well. But there are some other, more subtle, body language cues that you’ll want to learn how to spot.

Identifying the More Subtle Nonverbal Signs in Dogs

A dog’s posture is the next thing you need to pay attention to, specifically, if you are trying to read a dog who has fear, anxiety or aggression. As with all cues, some can be subtle, and some are more obvious.

Here’s a quick list:

  • Excessive Yawning
  • Lip Licking
  • Raised Hackles (these differ based on dog breeds)
  • Heavy Panting
  • Avoiding Eye Contact and Lowering his Head
  • Rapid Pacing Back & Forth Like He’s Nervous

And to help you know what each of these looks like, here’s a video that shows you examples of each.

How To Spot Fearful Body Posture In Dogs

Are you starting to see why learning to read your dog’s body language is so key in helping him learn how to behave? Who would have thought that whether or not your dog licks his lips too much was a warning sign, right?

Once we better understand how to tell what your dog is thinking through body posture, types of eye contact, and tail position and movement, the question should be…

What Should You Do When You See Signs of Stress in Your Dog’s Body Language?

When your dog’s body language suggests he’s stressed, we believe in using a handful of different strategies for helping them overcome their fears and anxieties, by working ‘Below their Emotional Threshold’ with low level stimulus. We even built a whole course around this called Impulse Control that you can check out here.

For example…

Let’s say you have a dog who is fearful or anxious around other dogs. In that situation, take your dog to an area where you know dogs will be, like a park or trail. Experiment with how close you can get to other dogs before your dog starts to show body language cues that he’s feeling stressed. Let’s say in this example that is 30 feet away, and you notice your dog start to lick his lips all of a sudden when he’s that close to another dog.

If 30 feet is the distance where your dog starts to feel stressed, then that’s the place we need to start!

If we try to push it and force our dog to work through his fears while he’s 10 feet from the other dog, that’s too much emotional intensity for your dog to make progress.

Be Wary of Forcing Your Dog to Push Through His Fears

There is a very popular dog trainer on TV that has made a name for himself by using video editing to make it look like he can fix fearful dogs by dominating them and forcing them to submit to his ALPHA will.

I cannot even begin to express how dangerous, and harmful, these approaches are to your dog’s ability to have emotional resilience.

When you take the approach of forcing your dog to confront his fears full on, and at their full intensity, you get one of three responses. Your dog will try to flee, fight or cower. Just like you wouldn’t take someone with a fear of spiders and lock them in box full of Tarantulas (in the hopes that’d they’d just ‘get over it’), we don’t want to flood our dog’s emotional system with overwhelming fear and anxiety. Doing so actually makes it MORE likely that your dog will become MORE fearful, anxious and submissive.

Like these poor dogs who’ve been trained to cower submissively by a dog trainer who uses electric shock as a consequence the second their dogs get out of line. Is this what you want your dog to look like?

Don't Take That Approach, Do This Instead...

Instead of using methods like the trainer above, we want to use training methods that teach our dogs to be calm and relaxed when in the presence of things that get them overly emotional.

We want dog’s that look like this while out on a walk: happy, calm and well adjusted, and NOT like the video above.

By taking the time to learn how to read the different types of anxious, excited, fearful and aggressive body language that dog’s are displaying, we take a HUGE leap forward in our ability to be better communicators with our dogs. Better communication leads to a deeper bond, and more obedient behavior.

How Do You Get Your Dog To Understand YOU?

To get any living creature to learn we need to provide some type of motivation.  And professional dog trainers have long ago discovered that there are only 4 ways to motivate an animal, so whether you are looking to help your new puppy stop doing an unwanted behavior or you’re trying to teach your old dog some new tricks, you only have four options.

Here’s a video that explains them pretty clearly:

We here at the dog training secret like to focus only on the giving of rewards, and the taking away of rewards because research by Hiby et al and Blackwell et al found that dogs trained using only positive reinforcement are more obedient than dogs trained with punishment.  And that dog’s trained with punishment are more excitedable and more aggressive.

Plus in a study about the affects of training small dogs versus large dogs by Arhant et al the researchers determined that small dogs are even more negatively affected by punishment based training, and ended up being even more likely to become aggressive when trained with punishment based methods.

So for those reasons, we focus on teaching dog obedience through a more positive reinforcement based dog training approach.

Many dog trainers and owners think this means we only believe in food bribes for our dogs.

This could not be further from the truth.  Sure, we like using food rewards during training sessions when they’re available, but there are LOTS of other methods for raising a well-behaved dog besides just using a treat.

The truth is that anything a dog desires can be used as a reward to help him learn, as long as you set up training games that allow him to earn those desires as a reward; or set up games that takes those rewards if we’re trying to get rid of an unwanted behavior.

Here’s a list of some of our favorite positive reinforcement dog training rewards…


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  1. Chet,
    My dog Spenser is a rescue dog. He was fear-aggressive from day one. I had a trainer in MA and in NJ. With things like paper bags and jeeps, we would slowly walk up to these things to let Spenser sniff them and get over his fear.

    He is not fear aggressive with people any more. He knows what a person is with most colors of skin and outfits, now, after 8 years. He still reacts with hackles and growls to hearing the mailman outside and seeing people walking by. I do positive conditioning with clicker and treats.

    What I have found to be safe outside at night with dog walking with a dangerous dog nearby is for me to wear a lighted vest, ditto Spenser. When Rocko sees a dog and person coming in the dark, he has attacked. Last night, I was out on my sidewalk w/o my lighted vest or Spenser’s lighted collar. Rocko gave strong growls and pulling as he headed in our direction. I turned around and walking swiftly away, hoping his owner could control him unlike the last time when Rocko broke away and bit a woman and her dog.

    Do lighted nighttime gear can help with a dangerous neighbor dog.
    The night I was wearing this gear and walking pretty far from Rocko, his owner and I could both turn around and avoid Rocko’s aggressive behavior.

    My dog also recently pants and licks his lips alot at night, waking me.
    I was taking him out 3 or 4 times a night because he also had bloody stools.
    The stools are ok now, so I am pretty sure he is not telling me he needs to go out.
    He is telling me he is anxious and afraid. I figure he may be in back pain…. or something in my bedroom scares him.

    I think now that he is unable to jump up on low bed and sleep near me, so he is anxious about that. Last night I just told him to go and lie down, firmly. He lay on the dog bed at the foot of my bed, and I was able to sleep thru the night.

    He has also spun and then bit his leg for years. He does this when he is anxious about me
    being with other people. For instance, my sewing group. I have found that putting his leash and harness on, and having him lie down beside me is the signal he needs to calm down and give up fear and anxiety. That works better than the thunder coat for him.
    Am now working around the doorway with visiting kids and parents.
    My 6 year old grand daughter suggested this when they come in. I tell Spenser to
    go back, sit and stay, clearing the doorway area. Now, the kids and parents are telling
    Spenser to sit and lie down. And that is starting to worki.

    It is probably better if I just do it in kitchen area.
    But it helps adults and kids who are scared of dogs to take control by asking Spenser
    to sit and lie down and stay. I also click and treat for sitting and sustaining eye contact with me in the kitchen area, tossing treats, which I learned from your videos. That keeps Spenser busy when kids come in through the door. He weighs about 90 pounds and is very physical and strong, despite two leg operations 8 years ago. So I NEED to be able to control me for my sake (I am 76), and for others’ sakes.



    Minette Reply:

    Honestly I think these complicated behaviors can be helped by a boarded veterinary behaviorist


  2. Hi Chet
    I have a rescue dog Mandy she is about four not sure what breed maybe shepard dobie or russle
    or combo she’s 30 lbs she goes off about everything animals people noises bells and so on.
    I’ve purchased some of your stuff already but don’t seem to be having much luck getting her to
    listen except for got to bed witch she goes ballistic doing for the treats. When she gets a little
    distracted she won’t listen to the clicker at all. any help what to do?


    Minette Reply:

    I would skip a meal or two so that treats are more important to her for training and be sure to train on leash


  3. Gretchen says:

    We have a sweet dog (Cavapoo). She follows directions very well except when she picks up something in her mouth that could harm her she won’t release it. We have tried “drop it” then reward with a treat and have even on occasion tried to pry it out of her mouth. Last night she growled at my husband when he tried to pull it out and snapped at him. She is 1 yr. old. I was shocked. We have removed plastic, wire and glass from her mouth.


    Minette Reply:

    Use the search bar at the top of the page to search for articles on possession aggression


  4. Deborah Hoffman says:


    I have purchased a number of your training tools hoping that in about 6 months I will have time to read/view them and consistently apply your tips to my dog. (I am currently taking care of a father with Alzheimer’s and helping a brother with other health and family problems and have no extra time.)

    My biggest concern is that my female dog (a 5yr old, 17#, terrier mix) automatically tries to nip at the fingers of children and most adult strangers (not in a playful way). I keep close tabs on her when these situations arise to avoid a problem but would like to find a way to change this behavior. Do you have any suggestions for me? Although I am busy, I will take the time to do anything to prevent this particular behavior.

    Thank you so much. I am so looking forward to the time that I can really delve into your training products.


    Minette Reply:

    With aggression issues we often recommend finding a veterinary behaviorist to witness the behavior and help directly


  5. Georgia says:

    Hi! I have a 6 yr. old bichon/poodle mix. He may have possession aggression. When he plays with his balls. (Ha! His toy balls. HE’S been neutered.) He will bite our hands if we try to take a ball away. But, he often (not always) responds to “Give,” and then releases the toy. Should we be demanding that he “Give” each ball to us before we throw it for him? Or should we try another approach?


    Minette Reply:

    No, you need to work on the opposite. If you want the dog to respond to you no matter what, you need to take out the conflict. By forcing him to give things up he feels conflict.

    Imagine I come up to you in the lunch room, punch you in the face and take your cookie. I do this for several months, but then you grow bigger than me… I come up to you and demand your cookie (conflict) you can either give it to me, or punch me in the face and choose the fight…

    If however I come up to you and say, hey I love those cookies; would you take 2 of my mom’s homemade brownies for that one cookie? You would be more conducive to giving me what I want.

    Your dog is the same way. He feels conflict when you MAKE him give something up and sure you can force him but he may bite you at some point.

    Instead, get two of the exact same toys and exchange one for the other as you play. takes all the conflict away. Then take these toys from him at the end with a big reward and put the toys up for the next time you play.


  6. Carol says:

    Hello, I have a 5 year old Cavapoo dog who will not let me handle him at all. I’ve tried brushing and combing him but he gets really nasty and snappy, only with me not hubby. He sleeps with my husband and he’s fed by him as well but when Clive is away he’s fine with. But far worse than anything is his constant barking. He’ll walk up to me and just bark non stop.


    Minette Reply:

    I would look into a citronella


  7. Joyce Littlefield says:

    I am curious on the tail wagging. It had been explained to me ys ago a tail wagging to the left signified the dog was happy with his “person”/pack leader and to the right was for a non-pack person?


    Minette Reply:

    No, all dogs and tails are different


  8. Georgia Caldwell says:

    Hi. I recently wrote to you about my dog with possession aggression. You suggested that in order to avoid conflict, I stop asking/making my dog “Give” his ball to me, that I present him with another of the exact same toy and that we trade. This isn’t working. My dog continues to obsess over the original ball and refuses to let go of it.

    I’m at a loss. Should we just ignore this behavior until he actually decides to relinquish the ball on his own?


    Minette Reply:

    I would find a boarded veterinary behaviorist to witness the behavior and help


  9. Linda says:

    I am going crazy looking for the recipe for liver dog treats!
    I saw it somewhere on your emails
    I am boiling my liver now and I don’t remember how long and
    what to do when I put in the oven.

    Please help ASAP


    Minette Reply:


  10. Mary says:

    Hi I have a staffishire dog who is 6 years old very friendly and loves children but when I bring her for walks and she sees another dog she tries to go and get to fight them .


  11. David says:

    You realize how few trainers read this and actually agree with you? The majority think it’s useless to worry about body language. I’ve said many times that by far the most important thing to do when it comes to understanding dogs is hours upon hours of dog interactions and the best is interacting with groups of dogs. I’m criticized and laughed at. These douche bags have no clue what their doing. I’ve talked about how I never feel confused or unsure about what last going on in a dogs head. I can feel everything and always know exactly what to do. Instead of trainers hearing that and getting excited about the coolness of it they call me a joke . I spent 25 years 80 hours a week every week interacting with large groups of dogs and it’s that which made me what I am. I’ve even offered to let trainers come to my facility and teach them exactly how to read body language and energy and I wasn’t even asking for money I only wanted to educate but I was ignored


    Minette Reply:

    All we can do is hope to educate… I just hope someone reads my articles and learns


  12. Nan says:

    I have a 15 month border aussie puppy who does well with friends who I visit or who come to see me. Unfortunately even though she sits while the person greets her she piddles. I am asking people to greet her outside the front door first but how do I cure that problem. Will she just out grow this?


  13. Cheryl says:

    We live on 10 acres with no fence. How can I teach her to stay and not get lost in the grounds. She very stubborn. 11 month old yorkie.


    Minette Reply:

    I would look into invisible fence, trusting a dog to stay on your property is dangerous


  14. Shari says:

    I have a shotgun jack Russell mix. He is very smart. A good dog. But he will still urinate on the corners of the bed. I keep the doors closed. He asks to go out and doesn’t do it that often but it is a problem that we have. I don’t know what to do.


  15. Shari says:

    I have a shitzu jack Russell mix. He is very smart. A good dog. But he will still urinate on the corners of the bed. I keep the doors closed. He asks to go out and doesn’t do it that often but it is a problem that we have. I don’t know what to do.


  16. Vicki says:

    I have a large pack of dogs, all rescued from the euthanasia list from 2 different states shelters. I do ok for the most part except for the barking. They bark at every sound including the opening of a door. When I instruct them to Stop it just gets worse. It’s a chain reaction any one of them will bark and then their all barking. I’ve scolded them to no end even spray them with a water bottle they still bark. Any advice you can give would be very appreciated


    Minette Reply:

    Read this


  17. Jan says:

    I really like your programs and have purchased a few of them I would love to read this article all the way, but the back ground makes is very hard to read. Might want to look at changing to a different one.


  18. I joined the on line class. Was offered an 8 week course to train with Service Dog Trainers for $299.
    I was disconnected by mistake.
    Can I get the class?


    Minette Reply:

    Contact Julie at customer service at


  19. Cheryl says:

    my only problem i have with Mason is when he is in car with me and i pull up to gas station, bakery, or drug store, he starts barking crazy. (plus he has a high screeching bark)) no matter what i do he does not stop
    so i need advise with that


    Minette Reply:

    search my articles for those on barking


  20. Kriie says:

    Hi, Chet. I have littermate 7 month old aussiedoodles, make and female. Great dogs. They ALWAYS obey in training sessions, and I train them seperately, but in “real life” he rarely comes when called, unless he knows the is a treat and she jumps in excitement EVERY time she hasn’t seen us for a while. Otherwise, they are great. Sit, come (again, she is better than him), wait, leave it, fetch… I can even tell them to stay in a room, leave for a while, then come back, and they’ll still be there. They are fabulous with almost everything else, her 90% of the time, him 85%. But the “come” for him and that aggressive , excited jumping is driving us crazy (especially since my son is as tall as the female is when she stands on 2 ft, and her claws hurt him.)
    I can try the long leash for him, but for her?


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